Carbon leakage from unilateral environmental tax reforms in Europe, 1995-2005.
||Barker, T.S, Junankar, S, Pollitt, H. and Summerton, P. Carbon leakage from unilateral environmental tax reforms in Europe, 1995-2005.. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.021. Cite this using DataCite|
||Barker, T.S, Junankar, S, Pollitt, H. and Summerton, P.|
Studies of the effects of the Kyoto Protocol have shown carbon leakage (typically from tax and permit schemes with lump-sum revenues recycling) to be in the range of 520% using static Computable General Equilibrium models. However, in practice, researchers have found that carbon leakage from the implementation of the EU ETS is unlikely to be substantial because transport costs, local market conditions, product variety and incomplete information all tend to favour local production. This study investigates potential carbon leakage from six EU Member States (MSs) that implemented Environmental Tax Reform (ETRs) unilaterally over the period 19952005. The study uses the large-scale multisectoral integrated energyenvironmenteconomy (E3) model of 27 European countries, energyenvironmenteconomy model of Europe (E3ME), to undertake a dynamic comparative analysis to assess any carbon leakage effects over the longer term 19952012. A counterfactual Reference case is constructed, assuming that the six countries did not introduce ETRs; then alternative scenarios are developed to assess the effects of the ETRs, including effects on CO2emissions for the EU25 economies. Most MSs recorded a reduction in CO2emissions when comparing the Baseline case to the Reference case. The results show that carbon leakage is very small and in some cases negative, due to technological spillover effects.