A study was undertaken to investigate the energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water systems as well as the electrical power requirement for heat pumps in residential dwellings. A residential area of 96 two, three and four bedrooms houses was considered. Energy demand and power requirements in old poorly insulated buildings and in new, well insulated buildings were investigated. The requirement for electrical power for the heat pumps in the whole residential area was computed. The effect of room temperature settings, hot water use, heat pump thermal capacity and building insulation on the power requirements in the residential area was considered.
It was found that hot water consumption has a significant effect on energy demand and power requirements. The energy demand for hot water systems may be up to 3.5 times higher than that for space heating for small, well insulated buildings.
A reduction of the room temperature setpoint and hot water consumption reduces average energy consumption. However, the peak power requirements are not significantly affected. Therefore a different control strategy, such as energy demand shifting, is needed in order to reduce electrical power peaks.