This work benchmarks the existing UK cold chain and provides robust evidence-based data on emissions in 2020. Only emissions from refrigeration within UK borders was considered, both from refrigerant leakage and from electrical power usage. Energy consumption For energy consumption the Digest of UK Energy Statistics (DUKES) was widely used. This data is compiled by the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and contains data for many years up until the current year. The United Kingdom Statistics Authority has designated these statistics as National Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and therefore they were considered as the most accurate data available. DUKES data does not always differentiate the energy consumed by refrigeration systems in each of the cold chain sectors and therefore further analysis and assumptions were often required. Energy consumption values shown were collated per year for the years 2019/2020, unless otherwise stated. Emissions from refrigerant leakage The main GHG refrigerants are the fluorinated gases (f-gases); hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). According to Brown et al (Brown et al., 2021) emissions of f-gases can occur at various stages of the refrigeration equipment life-cycle: During manufacturing, During installation, Over the operational lifetime, At disposal. The most comprehensive source of information for direct emissions is the UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory. This contains national greenhouse gas emission estimates for the period 1990-2019 and is the United Kingdoms National Inventory Report (NIR) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It includes losses during manufacture/initial charging and at decommissioning as well as losses in use.
We set out to study how the promise of green 5G is produced and circulated. We conducted an analysis of a UK-focused corpus of documents that represent key sites through which the promise of green 5G is produced, circulated and challenged. By the promise of green 5G we refer to an emerging, overarching, dominant expectation that 5G will produce positive environmental sustainability benefits of various kinds. We employed an analytical approach informed by the sociology of expectations and the concept of technoscientific promises. We asked: what are the particular contents of this promise (i.e. the more specific promises and expectations it is built upon), how do enactors seek to boost its legitimacy and credibility, what activities are involved in its production and circulation and what are its present-day material effects, does the promise exclude or overlook alternative options, and is it challenged? We pursued these aims and questions through a document analysis of a diverse corpus (n=260) comprised of UK newspaper articles and newswire results, and reports and webpage content from industry, standardisation bodies and research consortia.
Energy Systems Catapult was set up to accelerate the transformation of the UKs energy system and ensure UK businesses and consumers capture the opportunities of clean growth. The Catapult is an independent, not-for-profit centre of excellence that bridges the gap between industry, government, academia and research.
This links to the searchable interface for the public datasets.
A free and open data platform for energy system modelling. OPSD collect, check, process, document, and publish data that are publicly available but currently inconvenient to use. Open access where possible but some data published here might be subject to copyright. Check specific terms by data set.For further information see "Open Power System Data Frictionless data for electricity system modelling" in Applied Energy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.097
Summary of analyses of options for a low carbon economy (includes MARKAL model results by Future Energy Solutions). This report contains the results of a study, undertaken on behalf of DTI, DEFRA and the PIU, to develop a range of bottom-up estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the UK energy sector up to 2050, and to identify the technical possibilities and costs for the abatement of these emissions. Three levels of abatement by 2050 have been considered: a 60% reduction relative to emissions in 2000 - approximating to the level considered by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP 2000) - plus 45% and 70% reductions relative to 2000 levels. Marsh, G, Taylor, P, Haydock, H, Anderson, D, Leach, M (2003). Options for a Low Carbon Future. DTI Economics Paper No 4, Department of Trade and Industry.
This report summarises the modelling work undertaken for the 2003 Energy White Paper using the MARKAL energy model. It describes the scenarios andsensitivities used in the modelling work. It concludes that there is a variety of carbon abatement options across the energy supply sector, in improving energy efficiency and across the transport sector. Total abatement costs are uncertain and vary considerably by scenario andsensitivity but are unlikely to have a significant impact on GDP growth.Innovation and technical progress are key elements in reducing the costs ofcarbon abatement. The report compares the costs from the MARKAL model with those from a range of other models. Most of the studies suggest GDP losses of under 3% in 2050. It looks at the different types of economic models used to analyse abatement costs and the reasons why they might produce varying cost estimates This is now archived.Leach, M, Anderson, D, Taylor, P, Marsh, G (2005). Options for a Low Carbon Future: Review of Modelling Activities and an Update. DTI Occasional Paper No 1, Department of Trade and Industry.
This data set presents the underlying data used to produce the results for the UKERC working paper: Sensitivity Analysis of Net Zero Pathways for UK Industry or by searching the UKERC Publications section of this website. These data are the outputs of a how the The Net-Zero Industry Pathways (N-ZIP) model results are affected by changing a wider range of inputs than have been previously studied. The Net-Zero Industry Pathways (N-ZIP) model, developed by Element Energy, has been used by both the Climate Change Committee (CCC) and the Government to explore how industry can be decarbonised in way that is consistent with the UKs netzero greenhouse gas (GHG) target. This data set presents the underlying data used to produce the results for the UKERC working paper: Sensitivity Analysis of Net Zero Pathways for UK Industry or by searching the UKERC Publications section of this website.
Model output from UK MARKAL Elastic Demand for all UKERC Energy 2050 project revised scenarios. This consists of datasets as .xls files plus graphics summaries as PDFs Please acknowledge the UKERC Energy Systems Theme when making use of this data. Reference this data source as: Keppo I Skea J. and Ekins P. 2013 UK Energy 2050 Revised Scenario Set Data UKERC Energy Data Centre http://ukedc.rl.ac.uk The revisions are described in UKERC_Energy_2050_RevisedScenarios.pdf There is further information at ReadMe_2050Scenarios.htmll The .xls files are in the Data subdirectory
Annual energy projections, analyzing and projecting future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK to assist in monitoring progress towards meeting carbon budgets for the UK and to inform energy policy and associated analytical work across government departments. The projections are based on assumptions of future economic growth, fossil fuel prices, electricity generation costs, UK population and other key variables regularly updated. They also give an indication of the impact of the uncertainty around some of these input assumptions.Each year, a PDF report is produced, along with a number of Annexes which are spreadsheets of the tables in the reports.
Model output (from UK MARKAL Elastic Demand) for all UKERC Energy 2050 project scenarios. Please acknowledge the UKERC Energy Systems Theme when making use of this data. Reference this data source as: Strachan N. Anandarajah G. Hughes N. and Ekins P. 2010 UKERC Energy 2050 energy systems scenario data UKERC Energy Data Centre http://ukedc.rl.ac.uk More information is available in UKERC_Energy_2050_Scenario_Data.pdf and ReadMe_2050Scenarios.html