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Reference Number EP/Z002168/1
Title PTOMS - Protection Technologies for the OWF-MMC System
Status Funded
Energy Categories Renewable Energy Sources (Wind Energy) 50%;
Other Power and Storage Technologies (Electric power conversion) 25%;
Other Power and Storage Technologies (Electricity transmission and distribution) 25%;
Research Types Basic and strategic applied research 100%
Science and Technology Fields ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) 100%
UKERC Cross Cutting Characterisation Not Cross-cutting 100%
Principal Investigator Dr B Pal
No email address given
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Imperial College London
Award Type Standard
Funding Source EPSRC
Start Date 01 September 2024
End Date 31 August 2026
Duration 24 months
Total Grant Value £192,297
Industrial Sectors
Region London
Programme UKRI MSCA
Investigators Principal Investigator Dr B Pal , Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London (100.000%)
Web Site
Abstract Offshore wind farms (OWFs) have become an important way of renewable energy utilization due to the advantages of rich resources, high utilization hours of power generation, and land saving. The produced power is often transmitted to the onshore power system by modular multi-level converter (MMC)-high voltage DC (HVDC) technologies. Therefore, both sides of the AC tie line between OWF and MMC are interfaced through power electronic devices having high controllability.OWFs often adopt the grid-following controller, and it has two control structures: decoupled current control (DCC) and decoupled sequence control (DSC). They are required to ride through a fault in modern power systems, so some innovative fault ride-through (FRT) strategies must be used so that the fault behaviors of OWFs are significantly different from synchronous generators (SGs).In addition, the MMC has two typical control modes: voltage-frequency (VF) control and grid-forming control. The control objective of the MMC is to provide a voltage and frequency reference for the OWF-MMC system. When the traditional VF control is used, the MMC does not have the current limiting function, so the MMC is easily blocked within an extra short time due to overcurrent if a fault occurs. To limit the fault current and control the system voltage, the grid-forming controller has been developed and become a research hotspot. However, the research on fault characteristics of the OWF-MMC system and their impact on protection performance is still in its infancy. Some incidents have happened outside and within the European Union (EU) since the protection scheme is not configured well. In the UK, the world's largest operating offshore wind farm-Hornsea was disconnected from the onshore grid in 2019 due to the wrong operation of the protection system. During this accident, the system frequency declined below 49 Hz and almost one million people across England and Wales experienced blackouts. Some blackouts and equipment damage have also been reported in the Germany Bard1 project partly due to improper protection and control configurations. Therefore, protection technologies for the OWF-MMC system are extremely important to maintain power supply reliability, device safety, and grid stability
Publications (none)
Final Report (none)
Added to Database 05/06/24