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Projects: Projects for Investigator
Reference Number NIA_SHET_0012
Title Magnetically Controlled Shunt Reactor (MCSR)
Status Completed
Energy Categories Other Power and Storage Technologies(Electricity transmission and distribution) 100%;
Research Types Applied Research and Development 100%
Science and Technology Fields ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) 100%
UKERC Cross Cutting Characterisation Not Cross-cutting 100%
Principal Investigator Project Contact
No email address given
Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution plc (SHEPD)
Award Type Network Innovation Allowance
Funding Source Ofgem
Start Date 01 December 2013
End Date 01 January 2015
Duration 15 months
Total Grant Value £120,000
Industrial Sectors Power
Region Scotland
Programme Network Innovation Allowance
Investigators Principal Investigator Project Contact , Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution plc (SHEPD) (100.000%)
Web Site http://www.smarternetworks.org/project/NIA_SHET_0012
Objectives Establish the best location for installing a trial MCSR, its performance specification and the relevant system data for the chosen location Utilise results from activities above as input for a detailed design of MCSR with capability to be adapted for the functionality of an SVC and including all associated electrical and civil designs Review ZTR’s quality and procurement processes Perform risk analysis of the technology Establish the training, operation and maintenance requirements Compile reports with results of the study for use to decide the viability of a trial installation and as the design for the potential trial The success of this project is based on completion of the study and reports which can provide a basis for deciding the viability of installing a trial MCSR on SHE Transmission’s operational network without compromising safety, health and the environment as enshrined in GB statutes.
Abstract The problem addressed by this project is the high cost of equipment to control reactive power on GB Transmission networks. The problem and the limitations of currently used equipment are explained below. GB power systems mainly consist of electrical energy which is generated, transmitted and distributed as high voltage three phase alternating current (AC) at a frequency of 50Hz. The current in each phase conductor changes direction to and from its generation source a hundred times in every second. Due to the physical orientation and interaction of the effects of current flow in conductors as well as the nature of connected load, the natural oscillation of AC leads to a phenomenon called reactance. Reactance is another form of opposition to current flow exhibited by the other two basic electrical components (inductors and capacitors) due to their ability to momentarily store energy. During each cycle of AC flow from the source to the load and back, in addition to the energy used in the load, there is a fraction of the energy that is temporarily stored in inductive components as magnetic fields or in capacitive components as electric fields and then returned back to the circuit a little later. This storage and discharge of energy draws additional current in conductors causing flow of reactive power, a component of the total transmitted power which has no contribution to the power actually needed by the connected load for meaningful use. Reactive power flow results in the oversizing of transmission infrastructure, further losses in form of heat due to flow of extra unnecessary current as well as difficulty in maintaining voltage within acceptable limits under varying load conditions. Inductive circuits are said to absorb reactive power and increased load in such circuits results in lower voltage at the load connection points. Conversely, capacitive circuits are generators of reactive power and during periods of light or no load, voltage at load points can exceed that at the source. Statutory power quality requirements and the growing need for transmission capacity imposed by increasing volumes of renewable generation compel Network operators to seek mitigation for the effects of reactive power flow. The principle behind the mitigation is simple, if reactive power is absorbed in a circuit, a source of reactive power is needed to compensate and vice versa. Generating stations can provide both forms of reactive compensation but it is neither practical nor cost effective to use generation for that purpose. A typical solution involves installation of additional devices called Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) dispersed throughout the network nearer to the load points. A range of FACTS devices exists to serve as either sources or sinks of reactive power and typical devices include capacitors and reactors connected in various ways on the system and in various combinations depending on reactive compensation needs for each part of the target system. This project focuses on one inductive FACTS device, the shunt reactor which is connected to limit voltage rise in capacitive circuits which have either nothing connected or have light load. Traditional shunt reactors have a fixed rating and are usually switched into service at times of troughs in load profiles. This implementation means that every time a shunt reactor is energised there is a corresponding big step change in voltage. This "all-or-nothing" response isundesirable thus "tapped" shunt reactors would be more preferable as they provide a range of set points (taps) with finer step changes to respond to a wider range of voltage requirements. However, the mechanical tap position changers on these devices have an inherent time delay when moving between taps resulting in a time lag of several minutes between the minimum and maximum ratings. Since modern networks are increasingly connecting dynamic generation sources such as wind to active loads, the inevitable and usually spontaneous fluctuations in generation output and load characteristics are best addressed by dynamic and fast acting reactive support. Tapped shunt reactors do not adequately address such stringent demands. The current most optimal solution is to use Static Var Compensators (SVC) which comprise of reactors and capacitors switched by power electronics devices as well as circuit breakers (mechanically) where predetermined step changes are needed. SVCs are complex, costly to install and have high maintenance needs. A simpler means of dynamic reactive support without high capital and operational costs would be the most ideal solution. A Magnetically Controlled Shunt Reactor (MCSR) is a new type of FACTS device made by a Russian firm Zaporozh transformator PJSC (ZTR) which appears to address most of the foregoing concerns. An MCSR possesses a continuously regulated inductive reactance to counteract circuit capacitance and therefore provides a smooth range of reactive output which keeps voltage within required limits. This is done by energising a control winding by a variable DC voltage which induces a bias magnetic flux in the core of the MCSR. This saturates the core of the reactor which results in the absorption of reactive power from the network. Provision of smooth control of the level of DC bias voltage allows variable reactive power to be drawn and quickly enough for the reactor to go from no load to rated power within 150ms. This technology has mostly been proven in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries (former Soviet Republics) but there are no known installations in other parts of the world or in Western Europe. The intention is to trial this technology in SHE Transmission’s License area in the future. This project is a feasibility study which will allow a detailed analysis of the technology and its implementation before a large scale live trial is attempted.Note : Project Documents may be available via the ENA Smarter Networks Portal using the Website link above
Publications (none)
Final Report (none)
Added to Database 10/09/18