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Projects: Projects for Investigator
Reference Number NIA_CAD0084
Title Implications of Hydrogen Purity
Status Completed
Energy Categories Fossil Fuels: Oil Gas and Coal(Oil and Gas, Refining, transport and storage of oil and gas) 50%;
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells(Hydrogen, Hydrogen transport and distribution) 50%;
Research Types Applied Research and Development 100%
Science and Technology Fields ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering) 100%
UKERC Cross Cutting Characterisation Not Cross-cutting 100%
Principal Investigator Project Contact
No email address given
Cadent Central
Award Type Network Innovation Allowance
Funding Source Ofgem
Start Date 01 September 2022
End Date 31 December 2023
Duration ENA months
Total Grant Value £365,000
Industrial Sectors Energy
Region West Midlands
Programme Network Innovation Allowance
Investigators Principal Investigator Project Contact , Cadent Central (99.996%)
  Other Investigator Project Contact , Cadent Eastern (0.001%)
Project Contact , Cadent North London (0.001%)
Project Contact , Cadent North West (0.001%)
Project Contact , Cadent West Midlands (0.001%)
  Industrial Collaborator Project Contact , Wales and West Utilities (0.000%)
Project Contact , Northern Gas Networks (0.000%)
Project Contact , Cadent Gas (0.000%)
Project Contact , SGN (0.000%)
Web Site https://smarter.energynetworks.org/projects/NIA_CAD0084
Objectives This project will rely on different methods to identify and test the likely contaminants that will be found in a hydrogen gas networkThe project will use the following methods: Literature Review: The initial phase will involve a review and assessment of contaminants in the network and characterisation of these into types that may impact on the end use of hydrogen from a repurposed natural gas network. This characterisation phase will identify components that will need to be investigated both from a materials impact and from a combustion viewpoint. Experimental Testing: This will form the heart of the project and will build on the initial characterisation phase. Two separate structured experimental test programmes will be carried out looking at the effect of contaminants on materials and combustion characteristics of hydrogen and whether this has an effect on appliance operation/safety. The testing phases will operate in parallel and use bespoke cylinders containing hydrogen and individual contaminants.Stakeholder Engagement: Stakeholder engagement will happen throughout the project to ensure that all the facts are considered, and any key information is included within the analysis. Stakeholders engaged will be from both from the public and the private sector. This will be supported by the ENA through their existing gas stakeholder groups. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA): The outcomes of the experimental testing will inform the development of the Hydrogen Village Trial QRA and support the inclusion of any factors that relate to hydrogen purity/contaminants.Technical Report Writing: A report combining contributions from the methods outlined above will be produced. It is anticipated that the results from this work could inform and support the development of hydrogen purity standards and specifications.Measurement Quality and Data Quality will be supported by hiring professional organisations in to support the Cadent on the project. This project is undertaken in 5 work packages, which are: Work Package 1: This involves a literature review and collection of background information/data on likely contaminants that may be found in a hydrogen gas network. Existing data and information will be assessed to identify the key contaminant types and potential amount fraction within the pipeline network. Prior to the experimental activities, it is critical to define a suitable and realistic list of contaminants that are susceptible to be present in the gas network. It is important to shortlist the contaminants that are most relevant for the studies into materials and combustion; the range of contaminants includes those from hydrogen production, those picked up from existing pipelines and those that may be formed as a result of chemical reactions in salt cavern storage where chloride and sulphur chemistry may extend the range and characteristics of contaminants.Further research will also be carried out into materials likely to be present in installations to support the testing carried out in subsequent work packages.An interim report will be produced on completion of this work package based on the literature review, contaminant data assessment and materials to indicate the expected scale of the issue. This will be shared with GDNs, ENA and key stakeholder groups.Work Package 2: This work package is a structured experimental test programme looking at the effect of contaminants on materials that may be present in end-user systems downstream of themeter. The work package will be split into two parts: 2a – tests carried out in air to form the baseline comparison. 2b – tests carried out using hydrogen and contaminants.Testing will include slow strain rate testing and fatigue testing of typical materials in air and hydrogen to give a measure of the materials resistance to environment assisted cracking. As in Work Package 1, an interim report will be produced to share findings with GDNs, ENA and key stakeholder groups.Work Package 3: This is another structured experimental regime this time looking at the effect of contaminants on the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and whether this has an effect on appliance operation/safety. Results to be recorded will include thermal imaging/video footage for flame behaviour, photographic images of the flame, flame temperature measurements, and emission measurements e.g., NOx. To ensure the impact of contaminants in hydrogen on the combustion process is judged consistently, the gas mixtures produced in Work Package 2 will be used. This work package will provide an overall understanding of the impact of the contaminants in hydrogen along the network and the combustion and will allow a better understanding of the emission and combustion impact.Factors that could influence the overall “transience” of contamination will also be reviewed, as it is expected to decrease over time as the hydrogen may purge through the contaminants. Quantification of the transient effects is difficult as it will depend on flow, pressure, adsorption and desorption rates, and contaminant concentration, however this work will provide an indication of the timescales for any purging benefits.An interim report based on the results from the combustion studies will be produced and shared with GDNs, ENA and key stakeholder groups.Work Package 4: Work Package 4 is designed to provide feedback of results and lessons learned to the team developing the Hydrogen Village Trial QRA. The project team will liaise with the QRA team to ensure that any factors impacting on safety and risks that may result from the impact of hydrogen purity and the presence of contaminants are raised and included in their studies. The work undertaken here will include:- Effects of how the composition of contaminants over time will impact on safety.- Identification of key factors from the presence of contaminants that may be required in the QRA models and support the quantification of the effects on the risk ratings.- Support for the QRA team to investigate and develop mitigation methods for any issues identified by this current research.There is no formal deliverable but the overall report in Work Package 5 will contain the information from the interaction with the QRA team.Work Package 5: This work package will provide a milestone report at the end of March 2023, to provide an update on the current testing and provisional data assessment before producing a synthesis report based on the outcomes and results of Work Packages 1-4.The final report will include recommendations on whether any materials are unsuitable for hydrogen service or if additional appliance development should be considered.The final report will be shared with GDNs and ENA, with results presented and explained to key stakeholders like BEIS and HSE. The objectives of the project are as follows:- To provide greater understanding of the impacts of contaminants in domestic applications focusing on both the internal pipework material and the utilisation in combustion equipment. - Provide information for the QRA tasks to identify if there are any factors that could impact on the potential use of hydrogen in domestic applications.- Support developments of hydrogen gas quality standards and specifications (not a direct deliverable but a potential added benefit).
Abstract Testing thus far has assumed 100% pure hydrogen will be delivered when in reality it will pick up contaminants through the network. This project proposes to assess the nature of contamination that may be present in any existing pipework that may be repurposed from carrying natural gas to 100% hydrogen. The contaminants may have an effect on material degradation and combustion safety associated with the end user, and information is required to evaluate the potential effects and determine if there is any impact on overall safety.
Publications (none)
Final Report (none)
Added to Database 14/10/22