go to top scroll for more


Projects: Projects for Investigator
Reference Number EP/P009638/1
Title Surface-specific Moody-diagrams: A new paradigm to predict drag penalty of realistic rough surfaces with applications to maritime transport
Status Completed
Energy Categories Energy Efficiency(Transport) 65%;
Not Energy Related 25%;
Other Cross-Cutting Technologies or Research(Other Supporting Data) 10%;
Research Types Basic and strategic applied research 100%
Science and Technology Fields ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering) 100%
UKERC Cross Cutting Characterisation Not Cross-cutting 100%
Principal Investigator Dr B (Bharathram ) Ganapathisubramani
No email address given
School of Engineering Sciences
University of Southampton
Award Type Standard
Funding Source EPSRC
Start Date 24 April 2017
End Date 31 October 2021
Duration 54 months
Total Grant Value £775,323
Industrial Sectors Aerospace; Defence and Marine; Transport Systems and Vehicles
Region South East
Programme NC : Engineering
Investigators Principal Investigator Dr B (Bharathram ) Ganapathisubramani , School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton (99.999%)
  Other Investigator Professor ND Sandham , School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton (0.001%)
  Industrial Collaborator Project Contact , Lloyd's Register EMEA (0.000%)
Project Contact , Shell International Trading and Shipping Company Limited (0.000%)
Project Contact , Hempel A/S, Denmark (0.000%)
Web Site
Abstract The sea-water that flows over a ship hull forms a turbulent boundary layer that is responsible for the skin-friction drag incurred by the ship. This boundary layer is influenced by the "roughness'' of the hull surface, which increases the drag penalty by up to 80% compared to a smooth surface in some applications. This highlights the urgent need to understand the "roughness'' effects of surface coatings and their degradation on the efficiency, economy and emissions of ship transportation. In this project, we propose a transformative approach where we tackle this pressing problem using three complementary methods. First, we will carry out Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flow over surfaces that have been obtained from surface scans of various ship hulls. These results will be complemented by laboratory experiments and measurements in a towing tank of flows over replica of the same scanned surfaces. Finally, a DNS-Embedded Large Eddy Simulation (DELES) methodology will be developed and used to predict the influence of realistic topographies on drag.This holistic approach will provide the necessary data to gain fundamental understanding of the flows over such rough surfaces and enable development of a new data-rich paradigm for predicting the effects of roughness. We will specifically focus on maritime transport by developing a new surface-specific Moody-diagram approach that can be used by coatings manufacturers and ship operators to generate a realistic estimate of the drag penalty of coatings and fouling. This information can then be used to make operational decisions such as duration between dry-docking, quality of surface finish when in dry-dock, choice of specific coatings for specific surface finish and the variations in performance during service. This new approach can easily be extended to different sectors and new surface-specific Moody-diagrams can be developed for a whole range of applications including oil, gas and water transport pipelines, aircraft fuselage, trains, propellers etc. This project has financial support from a leading antifouling coatings manufacturer as well as collaborators at the University of Melbourne and the US Naval Academy who share our mutual interest in this research area
Publications (none)
Final Report (none)
Added to Database 18/02/19