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Projects: Projects for Investigator
Reference Number EP/I017054/1
Title Mathematical foundations for energy networks: buffering, storage and transmission
Status Completed
Energy Categories Other Power and Storage Technologies(Electricity transmission and distribution) 90%;
Other Power and Storage Technologies(Energy storage) 10%;
Research Types Basic and strategic applied research 100%
Science and Technology Fields PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS (Applied Mathematics) 50%;
PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND MATHEMATICS (Computer Science and Informatics) 50%;
UKERC Cross Cutting Characterisation Systems Analysis related to energy R&D 50%;
Systems Analysis related to energy R&D (Other Systems Analysis) 50%;
Principal Investigator Professor S Foss
No email address given
Sch of Mathematical and Computer Science
Heriot-Watt University
Award Type Standard
Funding Source EPSRC
Start Date 23 January 2011
End Date 30 September 2015
Duration 56 months
Total Grant Value £487,906
Industrial Sectors Energy
Region Scotland
Programme Energy Research Capacity, Mathematical Sciences
Investigators Principal Investigator Professor S Foss , Sch of Mathematical and Computer Science, Heriot-Watt University (99.999%)
  Other Investigator Dr S Zachary , Sch of Mathematical and Computer Science, Heriot-Watt University (0.001%)
Web Site
Objectives The following grants are linked: EP/I016953/1, EP/I017054/1 and EP/I016023/1
Abstract Electrical power grids are complex networked systems. Demand andsupply must be balanced on a minute-by-minute basis and there arelimited opportunities for large-scale storage. Further, flows innetworks are subject to the laws of physics, so that there is verylittle control over the routing of flows; generating capacity cannotin general be instantly switched on or off; sources of generationcapacity, whether renewable or nuclear, are often located far from theurban and industrial areas they must serve. In today's market theprovision of generation capacity is typically determined by marketforces in which many competing operators each seek to optimize theirown returns.The need to reduce carbon emissions has led to new policy which willtransform the grid. Notably, renewable sources suchaswind powerproduce supplies which are highly variable, and often unpredictableeven on relatively short time scales. To combat this variability theintroduction of demand response through dynamic prices has beenproposed. There is also significant future potential for thebuffering and storage of electrical energy over short time scales.These possibilities are integrated through the advent of smartgridtechnology, with the possibility of real-time price signalling towhich consumers may respond flexibly. Further, the availability tothe network of significant short-term buffering and storage, alongwith the ability to time-shift demand, should assist in the avoidanceof transient monopolies (localised in space or time) which isconsidered to be one of the reasons for the problems encounteredinthe deregulated market in California in the last decade.The energy grid of the future thus poses formidable challenges forengineers and mathematicians. Among the questions to be answered are:- will geographic diversity of supply help to reduce volatility?- will demand response through pricing help to reduce the impactof volatility?- to what extent can buffering and storage assist in thebalancingof supply and demand?- what is the effect of power system dynamics in a volatilenetwork?- how may we schedule generation units and calculate efficientreserves for a reliable grid in this more complex setting?- how do we do better forecasting in this new world?We propose to develop mathematical techniques to assist in answeringthese questions, to measure the costs of addressing the volatilitiesinfuture networks, and to assess the comparative effectiveness of thevarious forms of time- and space-shifting of energy which may be used;this will then enable the benefits of such measures to be tradedagainst each other. We shall develop these techniques in the contextof the transmission and distribution networks: while buffering,storage and the time-shifting of demand all correspond to movingenergy through time, the ability of the network to move energy throughspace - determined by the capacities in its links and the laws ofphysics - is inextricably linked to the benefits of moving energythrough time.There are two major and interlinked themes: (a) the development of themathematics of volatility in energy networks: of particular importancehere is the creation ofa calculus of effectivecapacities, formeasuring capacity required by flows exhibiting volatility on a rangeof time- and space-scales, and for determining those time- andspace-scales which are of critical importance in the operation of anetwork; and (b) the development of advanced probabilistic techniquesfor measuring the effects of extreme events in networks. These twothemes together provide the results necessary toassess, control andoptimize the performance of energy networks, and to devise the pricingand incentivisation schemes for competing suppliers, operators andconsumers so as to maximise economic efficiency
Publications (none)
Final Report (none)
Added to Database 22/10/10