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Reference Number NIA_NGTO001
Title Electric Road System for Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles
Status Completed
Energy Categories Other Power and Storage Technologies 75%;
Energy Efficiency(Transport) 25%;
Research Types Applied Research and Development 100%
Science and Technology Fields ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) 100%
UKERC Cross Cutting Characterisation Not Cross-cutting 100%
Principal Investigator Project Contact
No email address given
National Grid Electricity Transmission
Award Type Network Innovation Allowance
Funding Source Ofgem
Start Date 01 January 2018
End Date 30 June 2020
Duration ENA months
Total Grant Value £308,000
Industrial Sectors Power
Region London
Programme Network Innovation Allowance
Investigators Principal Investigator Project Contact , National Grid Electricity Transmission (100.000%)
  Industrial Collaborator Project Contact , National Grid plc (0.000%)
Web Site
Objectives There is significant progress in the development of individual charging technologies but the integration of these devices in the road infrastructure is limited to a number of trials worldwide. These trials are mainly focused on buses, and there is limited demonstration work for the infrastructure requirements for dynamic charging of private cars. The project aims to assess the feasibility of on-road power transfer solutions for dynamic (on the move) charging of electric vehicles. The practicalities of whether an inductive system can be readily integrated will be assessed along with the impact of dynamic charging on the transmission and distribution networks.Dynamic power transfer is defined by the power which is transferred while vehicles are moving in normal traffic. This solution will require an integration with road infrastructure in order to ensure their optimum functionality. This project will investigate if the dynamic charging technology is feasible, applicable and electrically safe by using (i) evidence based review of existing knowledge in drivers of change, (ii) qualitative and quantitative analysis of demand patterns for charging, (iii) design power station topologies, completed with (iv) modelling and simulation studies for producing realistic scenarios. The main work packages of the technical concept study are:WP1.1 – Scoping and Review of dynamic charging technologies. The project will identify from available material the existing standards and regulations for the operation of the electric power system, the development of dynamic charging, wireless power transfer, communication requirements and electrical safety regulations.WP1.2 Review of existing charging solutions in relation to charging type (static inductive charging, semi-dynamic charging, dynamic charging and combined static charging with dynamic charging). Then the electric vehicle inductive charging technology will be classified presenting the commercial available solutions and the industry trend. The range of solutions and data available to support the analysis will be produced. WP2 Impact of dynamic charging on the transmission/distribution networks. The main aim of this work is to develop a model for simulating the charging demand patterns on a charging lane and build study cases to assess the impact of dynamic charging on the grid. The dynamic (on the move) charging will result in an increase in demand variability due to spatial and time variability caused by charging track layout and traffic. Very few requirements specifically around on-road power transfer solutions are known to date. WP2.1 Development of a model for dynamic charging. The project will build a simulation environment to study the impact on dynamic wireless charging on the grid due to the movement of electric vehicles and the associated density value. The charging line is split in sections (charging pads) and the dynamic charging based on the detection points associated with the charging pads will be simulated. The power flow analysis will be performed for different grid configurations, assessing the spatial-temporal impacts of additional demand, introduced by charging lanes. The most performant topology will be selected based on the performances analysis.WP2.2 Evaluation of charging demand. A complete day demand data based on traffic behavior (fast traffic, slow traffic, traffic density) will be generated. Then a number of study cases will be identified based on traffic (e.g. commuting inter-urban patterns, urban patterns, low/medium/high traffic density) and the overall demand on a charging lane due to electric vehicle traffic will be analyzed. The relationship between vehicles traffic flow and power flow/consumption will be assessed. WP2.3 Integration of solar generation to smooth the charging demand pattern. Solar energy can be used to supply electric vehicle charging stations and smooth the charging demand pattern. In this study the daily balance of EVs charging demand and solar generation for different study cases will be investigated and the power demand reduction due to solar generation will be assessed.  WP3.1 Distribution / transmission network requirements for dynamic charging. The project will identify the requirements for dynamic charging from the power system perspective, based on the following characteristics identified in the modelling study in WP2: maximum expected load, supply voltage, continuous of service for EVs charging (supply is supported by multiple sources e.g. solar generation), extendibility (e.g. transformers with increased capacity or/and with dynamic loading capabilities), maximum allowed currents for the conductor type, electrical efficiency (loss minimization for transformer and cables), comply with the voltage constraints (maximum voltage drop), power quality, harmonics, fault location and restoration (protection scheme). WP3.2 Power system requirements for the charging system. The project will consider the following parameters for identifying the requirements for the charging system: primary power transfer unit and voltage level, the size of the substation based on operational conditions identified in the modelling work in WP2, cables type and connection topology, type of road side equipment, converters (DC to AC or vice versa), meters to measure the energy consumed by the EV fast charge point, control devices, protection devices. Electrical safety requirements are extremely important as a near field energy transfer. Trade-off between efficiency (efficiency of such systems deteriorates exponentially with the distance) and safety will be analyzed with a view to identify the best solution.  WP4 Comparative study of magnetic design topologies. Generally all existing high power wireless energy transfer systems use a resonant magnetic induction method as this approach currently provides the highest efficiency over an air gap. The wireless power transfer system consists of the primary circuit, magnetic coupler and the secondary circuit. In dynamic charging, the EV with the embedded excitation coil, is moving on a road and a series of track primary stationary coils are installed under the road. The main aims of this WP is to (i) compare different combinations of primary and secondary pad topologies (parallel flux only, perpendicular flux only, and hybrid flux designs) based on the present options for stationary systems, (ii) build the model for each topology and (iii) evaluate their performances indices for power transfer efficiency and transferred power with respect to design parameters. The project will investigate the technical concept of dynamic charging and the main objectives of the project are:(i) Detailed review of existing technologies, standards and regulations, commercial available solutions and trials worldwide(ii) Simulation of the charging demand patterns for different case studies(iii) Analysis of the impact of dynamic charging on the grid(iv) Evaluation of the distribution / transmission network requirements for dynamic charging(v) Design of different power station topologies and analysis of their performances(vi) Modelling studies of dynamic charging technologies and evaluate their performances.
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Added to Database 09/11/22